Master's thesis by Christoffer Hällsten, Electrical Engineering, Electric Power Technology, University West.
Supervisor at Vattenfall: Robin Andersson, Vattenfall Eldistribution AB.
This thesis has been carried out at Vattenfall Eldistribution at the department Control and Protection with the objective to design and evaluate a network model for ground fault simulations in PSCAD. The reconversion from overhead lines to underground cables has led to increased capacitances in the distribution network and this places greater demands on the feeder protection unit and network analyzes in order to assure that faulted feeders are disconnected according to regulatory requirements.
The aim of this work has been to determine how a network model could be designed for analysis of stationary signal characteristics and evaluate how great accuracy the power system model have compared to real earth fault test results. Earth fault simulations are performed with fault resistances of 3 kΩ and 5 kΩ. The power system model have been created to emulate a real impedance grounded network according to the π-model in PSCAD based on system information from Vattenfalls network management program Netbas. Results from the simulations have been compared against results obtained from real earth faults from the physical network with different settings on the central compensation equipment placed between the transformers neutral and ground. Simulations show, despite assumptions and some uncertainty about the actual zero sequence components similar results when fault resistance was 3 kΩ, both when compensation coil are fully tuned and out of tune ± 30 A corresponding to the feeder capacitance. The overall signal sequence conform quite well to the real network but at the same time simulations with 5 kΩ obtains greater deviations when results are represented in percentage.
Particularly prominent abnormalities could be identified in the phase angle between zero sequence voltage and zero sequence current. An analysis of deviations from the simulations in the digital network model against the real system indicates that the model probably could be further optimized if zero sequence impedances, dc components, and tolerances that occur in the real systems reactive compensation equipment and measuring circuits are taken into account.